Mania (BP I)
Mania is generally characterized by a distinct period of an elevated, expansive or irritable mood state. People commonly experience an increase in energy and a decreased need for sleep. A person's speech may be pressured, with thoughts experienced as racing. Attention span is low and a person in a manic state may be easily distracted. People may feel they have been 'chosen', or are 'on a special mission', which are considered grandiose or delusional ideas. At more extreme phases, a person in a manic state can begin to experience psychosis, or a break with reality, where thinking is affected along with mood. In order to be diagnosed with mania according to DSM-IV, a person must experience this state of elevated or irritable mood as well as other symptoms for two or more weeks.
Hypomania (BP II)
Hypomania is generally a less extreme state than mania, and people in the hypomanic phase generally experience fewer of the symptoms of mania than those in a full-blown manic episode. During an episode of Hypomania, one might feel an uncontrollable impulse to laugh at things he or she does not normally find funny. The duration is usually also shorter than in mania. This is often a very 'artistic' state of the disorder, where there is a flight of ideas, extremely clever thinking, and an increase in energy.
In the context of bipolar disorder, a mixed state is a condition during which symptoms of mania and clinical depression occur simultaneously (for example, agitation, anxiety, aggressiveness or belligerence, confusion, fatigue, impulsiveness, insomnia, irritability, morbid and/or suicidal ideation, panic, paranoia, persecutory delusions, pressured speech, racing thoughts, restlessness, and rage).
Mixed episodes can be the most volatile of the bipolar states, as moods can easily and quickly be triggered or shifted. Suicide attempts, substance abuse, and self-mutilation may occur during this state.
Dx: Bipolar I, Anxiety-Panic Disorder
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Post Edited (olivia of course) : 9/15/2007 1:52:56 PM (GMT-6)