1) A CT scan cannot confirm colon cancer, only tell if there are signs that point to it. For example, I had a CT scan for what was thought to be diverticulitis. What caused concern to the radiologist and my primary was significant sigmoid colon thickening which can be an indicator of cancer. A colonoscopy revealed several polyps and diverticulum which probably caused the thickening on imagery.
2) A CT scan can definitely show inflammation in the colon and small bowel. However, it does not always show inflammation that is there. I had two CT scan within a 2 month period for what was thought to be cecal diverticulits. Both showed considerable inflammation at the cecum.
Abdominal CTs can show other things besides what you have listed. They are valuable diagnostic tools. Prior to CT, often the only way to determine the problem was to do an exploratory laparotomy.
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CD, Ankylosing Spondylitis, small fiber peripheral neuropathy, avascular necrosis, diffuse connective tissue disease, Sjogren's Syndrome ?