Well my doctor said something very interesting to me when I was first diagnosed as a type 2. He told me I'd probably been living with this for a considerable time prior to catching it, it was just that the symptoms hadn't really mainfested themselves. That may also be true for your type 1 status. Now as to the damage, well, yes, you probably did some, but as to when it will manifest itself, if ever, is the question. As a dibetic you just have to be vigilent to watch for signs of neuropathy and to have your liver panels done on a regular basis. Your doc will also monitor your kidneys through simple urine tiests. That takes care of the lions share of where damage could begin to show up.
Personally, I wouldn't spend time worrying about it, but just try to live healthy and be vigilant for anything that doesn't feel right. The word of the day is "don't wait for it to go away, ask your doctor about it" if something doesn't seem quite right!