New Topic Post Reply Printable Version
[ << Previous Thread | Next Thread >> ]

DREAMGIRL
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jan 2006
Total Posts : 600
   Posted 5/12/2006 4:41 PM (GMT -7)   
:-)  hi all, this is my first visit here. i have a question for yyou. later today i am starting a new medication called questrin, it is a bile seqquestrant to help lower my cholesteral as i am not able to tolerate the statin drugs for that peurpose.  has anyone had to take questrin? i have IBS and a slight problem with a diverticuli pocket. i know this is going to really back me up so i just wanted to know if anyone has any info  thanks.  DG
 
All I did was include a Subject for your thread. -- Lil :-)

Post Edited By Moderator (7Lil) : 5/13/2006 11:06:33 AM (GMT-6)


dbab
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jan 2004
Total Posts : 4151
   Posted 5/12/2006 5:41 PM (GMT -7)   
Hi Dreamgirl,
I don't take questrin however I am a little concerned that you will be backing yourself up since you have diverticulosis. I would definitely suggest talking to your doc about it. My doc worries about that for me. Are you taking fiber supplements as well to bind your stool no matter what? Thats very important to keep stray stool from lodging in the pocket.
Hugs, Des
Co-Moderator ~ IBS Forum
Dx: IBS 1989, Diverticulosis 2004, UC 2005, Sjogren's 2006
Meds: Sulfazine EC 1000mg, Mesalamine Enemas, Chlorzoxazone 500mg, Naprosyn 500mg, Symax SL .125mg, Protonix 40mg, Xanax XR 2mg, Miralax 17g, Supplements
 
 
Please help Healing Well continue to help others by donating  http://www.healingwell.com/donate
 


DREAMGIRL
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jan 2006
Total Posts : 600
   Posted 5/13/2006 3:03 PM (GMT -7)   
:-)  thanks for responding, yes i am taking something to help hopefully, so far i am (just making a lot of noise) ha ha. agsind thanks for responding. this particular topic gest a lot of hits so i will keep watching.

DREAMGIRL
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jan 2006
Total Posts : 600
   Posted 5/14/2006 2:24 PM (GMT -7)   
:-)  hi i started the questran and already plan on a change. i read so many things that say it can cause other problems like gall stones, i think because i have heart disease the doctors figure i can die ii have a heart attack but it is okay to suffer a bit with other medication related problems, i do not like that thionking. the questran is for lowering my cholesteral,but i want to keep my digestive tract healthy, so i would still like to hear from anyone who has taken questran for any reason. thanks

Keriamon
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jun 2005
Total Posts : 2976
   Posted 5/15/2006 8:24 AM (GMT -7)   
Questran (in addition to being used as a cholesterol med) is used to treat people who have too much bile in their system, usually from having their gall bladder removed. If your guts are normal, then yes, it can constipate you. I take Welchol, which is also a cholesterol medicine, but I take it for the bile-absorbing properties. When I start to get constipated, I take less of it.

Has your doctor told you you can miss a dose or two of the Questran if you start to get constipated? Obviously you want to try other things first, like prune juice, aloe vera pills, fiber, etc., but if it's bad for you with your diverticulitis to get backed up, then I think you need to be able to stop it if it gets to be more than your laxative aids can compensate for. Definitely call your doctor if you start to get constipated while on it and let him know that you can't be constipated because of your gut problems (I assume it's not a GI putting you on this; other doctors don't usually know so much about what you can and can't do to guts).

Gall stones are supposed to be caused by cholesterol, so I would think that a cholesterol-lowering drug would lessen, not increase your chances of gall stones. I don't know if the Welchol does or not; I don't have a gall bladder so it's a bit of a moot point. :-D I don't know how the Questran works, but the Welchol is not supposed to enter the body; it's supposed to stay right in the guts, kind of like an insoluable fiber. It keeps you from absorbing cholesterol because it soaks up the bile that would otherwise further break down your food for absorbtion--including the cholesterol parts of your food. That's why it can be constipating for normal people but a God-send for people like me who have too much bile. If the Questran doesn't work for you, ask about the Welchol and see if it is any better on your guts. They basically do the same thing in terms of soaking up bile, but, you know, some people do better on one thing and some on another. I don't know if the Welchol is as good a cholesterol medicine, but you may need to split the difference between the cholestrol and the gut problems.

Personally I think cholesterol is a bunch of hooey since I know people with perfect cholesterol and gunked-up arteries and people with perfect arteries and heart problems--the genes will get you everytime; but I'm certainly NOT a doctor nor a scientist. It's kind of a faith, medicine; it works partly because you believe in it. I guess I better not ever need cholestrol medicine because I would have no faith in it and so it probably wouldn't work, LOL. I do have faith in it fixing my post-gall bladder problems, though, and it does work there.

There are some people here who have been on Questran; I think we may have a person or two still on it. A couple of girls who were on it for their post-gall bladder problems got off it because it gave them bad gas cramps; they switched over to the Welchol. I think one of the people still on it says it gives her gas and gas cramps too. If you begin to experience that, you'll know where it's coming from and, again, call your doctor and complain. But, again, those are people without gall bladders; it may affect you differently since you still have one.

Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 12/14/2006 11:41 PM (GMT -7)   
I noticed your post on Questrin from this year. I had my gall bladder removed as well and am a mess with to much bile going into the intestines. I was just given questrin and it seems to be working. I am thrilled except ii is causing a terrible burning in my upper stomach after taking it within an hour or so. I was told to take it without food?? It is killing my tummy. I get terrible acid as well. I am having problems spacing it with my other meds.....I spoke with the pharmacist tonight and he said many have complained of terrible stomach aches after.........do you have any suggestions from your experience?

Fluffytwo
Regular Member


Date Joined Sep 2006
Total Posts : 100
   Posted 12/15/2006 4:26 PM (GMT -7)   
My gall bladder was removed years ago, they put me on Colestid for the D which is similar. Helped for a long time but not anymore. Have terrible d and use immodium and Caltrate 600 with D, 2 or 3 a day. You get where you try everything to live a normal life. After drs. have been unable to help me much, I search for something better.

Good Luck to you,
Fluffytwo

Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 12/15/2006 7:13 PM (GMT -7)   
Oh I understand. My Doctor said that in 6 months I will know how it is going to be now. I am trying to find out what will work and not. To have cramps and diarreah all the time is unacceptable. The Questran is working in so far as stoping the diarreah, but it is killing my stomach! I read another post that said someone went on metamusil and her diarreah stopped. Have you tried that? I will as a next resort......it seems the immodium does not dent the problem for me. How is your diet??? Also, for the other member that takes it, do you take it before eating or after???

Post Edited (Sheree) : 12/15/2006 7:17:04 PM (GMT-7)


Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 1/21/2007 2:18 PM (GMT -7)   
Fluffy, I have been on the questran for a month and only take about 3/4 tsp before I eat breakfast. That seems to work for this time. I started with a low amount by using the 1/4 tsp instead of the scoop. I have stopped my diahhreah and have no constipation problems. When I took it before meals it gave me a terrible tummy ache, none now with the before breakfast routine. It is a miracle so far, and I don't have to scout bathrooms.....things are not perfect, but indeed better than when I posted the above posts....any questions, please reply and I will answer. Gall Bladder removal in Oct. due to pancreatitis from gallstone going down the wrong duct. What's sad is that my gallbladder had some stones but was not diseased. I never had a gallbladder attack!

Post Edited (Sheree) : 1/21/2007 2:23:00 PM (GMT-7)


Keriamon
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jun 2005
Total Posts : 2976
   Posted 1/22/2007 10:37 AM (GMT -7)   
A lot of people complain about the Questran causing stomach cramps and gas. I'm on Welchol and it causes neither, nor have I heard any complaints about it from others. Ask to switch to it and see if that helps. I can take it whenever I want or whenever it's needed, independent of when I get food.

Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 1/27/2007 1:04 PM (GMT -7)   
Now I am in trouble, as the Questan is interfering with the thyroid hormone I have to take in the AM. I followed directions in the literature and waited one hour after med to take questran. I am now HYPO thyroid due to the absorption problem. I cannot take the Synthroid at night, so I am up a tree. I am trying waitng 2 hours after Thyroid meds to take the Questran. If this doesn't work than I don't know what to do. I went to the girls room times yesterday without the questran and cannot go through that.......what to do??? The Doctor says Welchol has the same properties as Questran. In other words I would still have the problem......any suggestions would be appreciated. Is anyone else taking other meds they need to space with the questran???? confused

Keriamon
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jun 2005
Total Posts : 2976
   Posted 1/29/2007 10:08 AM (GMT -7)   
Have you tried calcium? That's all Linda (Inape) uses to treat her bile problem, and it helps me (although not quite enough on its own). It doesn't block absorption of anything, and it shouldn't interact. At the very least, it may be something that you take in the morning to get you through until lunch or later when you can safely take the Questran.

Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 1/29/2007 11:40 AM (GMT -7)   
I had been thinking of calcium as I read that post of Linda's. I went out to by the caltrate in fact, but I read some more on the Synthroid and it says calcium, iron, fiber, questran, Welchol all bind the Synthroid so it doesn't work. Also, it blocks many beta blockers, all kinds of drugs... I am now waiting for three weeks and on the dose of Immodium, Synthroid, one hour later oatmeal, and then wating two more hours to Questran. I will retest in three weeks to see if I am absorbing more thyroid this way. It is a real problem when you have to take other meds, as the WAIT ONE HOUR BEFORE OR FOUR TO FIVE HOURS AFTER QUESTRAN does not work.... The head pharmacist for the company called me Friday because of my complaint and it was to late to call back. I will do that now and let everyone know. I cannot tell you how much it helps to have all of you, as one can get despondent with the difficulities of controlling this dumping and cramping syndrome all day....

Keriamon
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jun 2005
Total Posts : 2976
   Posted 1/29/2007 12:08 PM (GMT -7)   
Is there another thyroid medicine that would be less of a hassle? I know my husband's getting fed-up with his. He didn't know he had a low thyroid until it came back on a routine blood test. And when he first tried it, it seemed to give him diarrhea, so he quit it. But his doctor shouted doom-and-gloom about not taking the thyroid medicine, so now he's back on it. The only thing is, he can't tell a dang difference between not taking it and taking it. His mood hasn't improved, his energy level hasn't improved, his weight hasn't decreased, his sex drive is still low, and his blood sugar has actually become a lot worse since he started on it, etc., etc. He's really beginning to wonder why he's on this expensive drug when it doesn't seem to do a thing in the world for him, except possibly make him worse. We're beginning to wonder if his doctor is drug-happy as he's now on three different diabetes medicines, two different cholesterol medicines, thyroid medicine, testosterone, and blood pressure. For Pete's sake, he's not yet 45 and he's doped up like an 80-year-old! We know he needs the blood pressure medicine, as he gets spells of a throbbing and aching neck (a symptom of high blood pressure), and we know he needs at least one diabetes pill for his diabetes because his sugar definitely runs high. But we're highly doubtful as to the benefit of all the other crap he's on. It seems the more medicines he gets put on, the worse his health gets instead of better. He's going to see an endocronologist in a couple of months, and hopefully get off some of it and get straightened back up. If not, then I'm actually going to advocate for a holistic type of doctor; I've never been a big believer in that route, but I don't believe in medicating people with dozens of drugs forever either. Too often the side effects are as bad or worse than the disease they cure, which may be holding true in your case. I don't know how bad your symptoms are when you're not on your thyroid medicine, but they certainly don't seem very good while you're on it.

Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 1/29/2007 3:49 PM (GMT -7)   
Hi, I just read your reply and can completely sympathise with you and your husband. I know that you must have thyroid if you need it. He is obviously in a hypo state or it would not have been precribed. There is synthetic thyroid and natural which is called armor. It is made from pigs and many people do well on it. It can get quite complicated as balancing your numbers can change from time to time. I understand the natural has a stablility problem, so I am hesitant to change over. Also, being that I have been on it since 1989, to change would be a real shock to my system. In answer to the statement below,

<"I don't know how bad your symptoms are when you're not on your thyroid medicine, but they certainly don't seem very good while you're on it.">

you cannot live being hypo thyroid as it can cause all your bodily functions to shut down eventually. We all must have thyroid. They probably are not checking it enough and you might ask that they check those levels everytime you go in? Also, being that he is diabetic, that also effects everything. I know my boyfriend is diabetic and he is on a million pills. I think the main mistake is that we don't check drug inner reactions, so therfore many things we mix, we should not. It is important to know these things as it can make a world of difference in how they work. And yes, I think Doctors overmedicate instead of suggesting other alternatives. But, you have to do a lot of research to find out what you think is right for you. Don't take him off of all meds, as it could be a disaster, you might look for another Doctor and also write down your questions before you see the endo.. don't stop any meds until you consult the physician of your choice. Also, diabetes and high BP can cause strokes, so important to continue therapy at the present. I don't take everything they suggest, I am very conservative and listen to my inner voice a lot. Right now it is telling me to find something else instead of Questran. I probably will start the calcium at dinner tonight. Hope this helps!!! I so understand how you feel... Thankyou so much for your input, it all helps so much. I am so sorry about the mess your husband is in right now and hope he gets better soon. They do OD all of us on meds that should not be taken together, or sometimes to more harm than good!!!

Post Edited (Sheree) : 1/30/2007 6:24:41 PM (GMT-7)


Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 3/4/2007 3:45 PM (GMT -7)   
Has anyone tried Pro Biotics for this type of D?? Last Monday I went into severe D again, however they thought I might have a flu bug. I had no Temp however, I went 19 times in a 10 hour period. I went on Lomotil early Tues. AM, it got better during the day. Finally relief..but sick all week. I went back on Questran (which was working good until Mon) This is my second day back on the Questran, and it doesn't make a bit of difference right now, except it is not runny, it is loose. ( I am sure than that is more than you need to know?) This may get better soon, I hope.
My dumping syndrome does not happen exactly after a meal, it usually come regardless of whether I eat or not. It come in rumbles, cramps and then I hit the bathroom!! The only thing I take that is different, is the Synthroid and it has always given me some D within an hour after taking it or so. I have checked the ingredients, and am not allergic to any of them. I believe the levothyroxine ingredient keeps my bowel in a hyper state, and now with the gall bladder out, it has made it worse.
I write on this board hoping to help someone else, and also get input from others on their experiences. By the way, I tried some calcium, and found the initial BM in the AM was formed and hard, and then after that, everything else was D.... Anyway, I am reading about Pro Biotics, any input on that as well?..
Happy Sunday!!! Although I am stuck close to the Bathroom on this glorious day in sunny California!!!

nono

Post Edited (Sheree) : 3/4/2007 3:53:00 PM (GMT-7)


Canyonbabe711
Veteran Member


Date Joined Mar 2006
Total Posts : 1451
   Posted 3/4/2007 4:08 PM (GMT -7)   
Sheree, are you sure it is the thyroid doing that? It would seem that that would be the time most people have to go anyway. Have you tried it earlier to see if it is the thyroid med. I keep my thyroid on the nightstand and when I get up to go to bathroom in the AM and am going back to bed I take it then. Then I can eat and take other meds when I get up. I did find that I could not take it with a BP med or I got very sick to stomach. It may be that another kind may be better. Synthroid doesn't agree with me so I take Levoxyl. I know you are not supposed to just switch because I guess they are somewhat different. The only one I was told not to try was Levothyroine generic.

Someone mentioned thyroid med as being expensive. I dont think they are too expensive except the Armour. As far as I know they all require an empty stomach. Mine says an hour before or 2 to 3 hours after a meal. Maybe after would work better. I don't see any difference either except I am not as constipated but my numbers are more in line.

7Lil
Veteran Member


Date Joined Apr 2005
Total Posts : 3269
   Posted 3/4/2007 5:10 PM (GMT -7)   
Sheree, you mentioned that with calcium you had formed stools in the morning.... I assume that means you take the calcium at night? If that is the case, then how about taking another in the morning? Taking 1 at night and 1 in the morning might be all you need to keep the D in check all day.
Co-Moderator for the IBS Forum
 
Please donate to help HealingWell continue to help us..... www.healingwell.com/donate


Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 3/4/2007 11:15 PM (GMT -7)   
Lil, I try to time it so that it does not block my thyroid meds in the AM..I know that the Questran said take your meds just one hour before, or 4 hours after your Questran, as it blocks the meds. As I mentioned above, I became severly hypo thyroid as the Questran was blocking the absorption of the meds even following the directions. I know the calcium does the same thing, only in a different way. I might try to take it after the Questran. I now wait 2 hours after Synthroid to take Questran, and am waiting to see if I get back to my normal thyroid levels. Perhaps I can take the Calcium sometime in the day that won;t interfere with the others meds I have to take all day..thankyou so much for the suggestion!! Any suggestions are sooooooooo welcome.. yeah

Canyon
I am about ready to change to Levoxyl, but my pharmacist says it is the same main ingredient as Synthroid. I know Levoxyl melts very quickly in the mouth as Synthroid takes awhile to absorb. I "KNOW" it is the Synthroid that starts out the D in the AM..it didn't in the begining, however through the years, it started to speed up everything. Then the gall bladder finished me off.. I am going to see my endo in two weeks and will discuss the transition again. I tried a few years ago to change to Unthyroid and it was worse.. They have taken it off the market..thankyou for your interest and suggestion, what a wonderful group of people here.. tongue

Post Edited (Sheree) : 3/4/2007 11:27:15 PM (GMT-7)


Canyonbabe711
Veteran Member


Date Joined Mar 2006
Total Posts : 1451
   Posted 3/5/2007 12:12 AM (GMT -7)   
Hope you find an answer. The only warning I would give with Levoxyl is to make sure you take it with plenty of water as it tends to stick in throat because of its weird shape. Lots of angles.

Keriamon
Veteran Member


Date Joined Jun 2005
Total Posts : 2976
   Posted 3/5/2007 10:16 AM (GMT -7)   
I seem to recall that my husband was complaining of having D when he first started on his thyroid medicine (not sure which one). He got over it, but then, he's got a pretty normal gut to start with. Things that bother normal people bother IBS people 100 times more.

Sarita
Veteran Member


Date Joined Mar 2005
Total Posts : 2486
   Posted 3/6/2007 1:34 PM (GMT -7)   
You should get your TSH measured.  Your dose of Synthroid may be too high, and this could easily be causing your diarrhea!

Canyonbabe711
Veteran Member


Date Joined Mar 2006
Total Posts : 1451
   Posted 3/6/2007 3:24 PM (GMT -7)   
Get the whole thyroid panel. Different meds we take for other things can affect the TSH. it is just a screening test but for the anyone that has a ongoing problem with the thyroid I find the whole test is more accurate. They wouldn't need the other parts of the test if the TSH told the whole story. An endo can explain it more but I have gotten that I ask for it all.

Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 4/21/2007 1:19 AM (GMT -7)   
Sheree said...
I had been thinking of calcium as I read that post of Linda's. I went out to by the caltrate in fact, but I read some more on the Synthroid and it says calcium, iron, fiber, questran, Welchol all bind the Synthroid so it doesn't work. Also, it blocks many beta blockers, all kinds of drugs... I am now waiting for three weeks and on the dose of Immodium, Synthroid, one hour later oatmeal, and then wating two more hours to Questran. I will retest in three weeks to see if I am absorbing more thyroid this way. It is a real problem when you have to take other meds, as the WAIT ONE HOUR BEFORE OR FOUR TO FIVE HOURS AFTER QUESTRAN does not work.... The head pharmacist for the company called me Friday because of my complaint and it was to late to call back. I will do that now and let everyone know. I cannot tell you how much it helps to have all of you, as one can get despondent with the difficulities of controlling this dumping and cramping syndrome all day....




Just a update as of April 21, 2007

I was on Questran for 2 months or more. It worked fairly well, although it did not stop the D enough to get my life back. I went in to have my thyroid levels done again as I had changed the time I took the Questran due to it cutting down the absorbtion of the Synthroid. I stuck with the time change and waited 2 1/2 hours after Synthroid before taking the Questran. IT DID NOT WORK....about 2 weeks ago I repeated the Thyroid panel (doing it every 6 weeks at this time) and I was even more hypo thyroid, the Synthroid is being blocked by the Questran still. I went off of Questran 2 weeks ago and will be checked next month to see if my thyroid panel is better, especially my TSH, FT3 and FT4. My Endo said just bumping up the dose at this point would not effect a change as the Questran was binding to it. I cannot take it any other time as I am on other meds, it would do the same thing and block them as well. So now, I have 7 BMs a day, nothing (immodium) except lomotil works a bit but I get stoned on it. This last week I have had so much D and frequent bouts that I cannot leave the house or keep my appts for more than a window of between 2 or 3 in the PM.

I tried metamusil today and went into severe bloating, cramps and still D. My tummy is still sore after taking it. The bloat and gas has finally gone down after taking gas aid and lomotil. Awful day and night. I acutally drive around doubled over the wheel most days from cramps and then I have to head home for the bathroom. I am afraid to take the metimusil again... I have to decide to give it a couple of days, or just pass as I cannot go through this terrible pain and bloating, and D with the Metimusal as well.

I am going to try the calcium next, however I am reading that it can block absorption of drugs as well. They say to take meds 2 hours before or 2 hours after??? Is anyone else on Synthroid and has tried calcium? I need thyroid hormone as I have no thyroid. I am a mess, and sooooo tired of the struggle, also it is so painful to have this every day!!! Has anyone else had severe cramping, bloating and gas after starting metamusil??? nono

Post Edited (Sheree) : 4/21/2007 2:30:01 AM (GMT-6)


Sheree
Regular Member


Date Joined Dec 2006
Total Posts : 37
   Posted 5/22/2007 9:59 AM (GMT -7)   
Just a follow up for those of us struggling after GB removal with D. I have tried darn near everything and am post surgery since OCT. I am grateful to all of you for your suggestions about handling this problem. I wanted to comment that my assumption about the Questran and Welcahol was correct. If you read the posts above you will see the struggle with those issues. I stopped the Questran and within 6 weeks my Synthroid worked and was not blocked anymore by the Questran. I went back and had my thyroid numbers checked again last week, my TSH went down to normal range. My reason to share this is that ANYONE taking medications and Questran together will have absorption problems with their meds. Please be careful, as you may need the other medications as much as the Questran. It interferes with them. If your just Questran and nothing else, than I imagine it is OK. Or if you wait a good 6 hours or so between mixing Questran and other medications it might be allright.

However, the bright side is that the calcium seems to be helping enormously in controlling the BMs. They are not completely under control but better. I also wait 2 hours after calcium to take any other meds or 2 hours before. I am taking it after dinner, and have now started in the early afternoon within 2 hours of taking my Synthroid. Anyway, it is trial and error. By the way, the metamusil blew me up and made me miserable, I could not handle the fiber in that. It was awful, and I went promptly off of it. My message is that we are all different and some things work for some and not for others. Keep trying the suggestions on this form, you are all wonderful supportive people. I am so glad to have found this! I hope in the near future my bowel adjusts in some way, as my life is very limited at this point in what I can do. Forget going out to dinner, or being out more than 4 hours without cramps and D. I was offered a job designing costumes for a film and am unable to work at all. My career is down the tubes right now. Yes, this is a great struggle but I keep hoping for the light at the end of the tunnel.

Sheree nono

Post Edited (Sheree) : 5/22/2007 11:04:38 AM (GMT-6)

New Topic Post Reply Printable Version
Forum Information
Currently it is Saturday, December 10, 2016 9:13 PM (GMT -7)
There are a total of 2,736,194 posts in 301,359 threads.
View Active Threads


Who's Online
This forum has 151449 registered members. Please welcome our newest member, iwanttocry.
248 Guest(s), 7 Registered Member(s) are currently online.  Details
Mews2much, PDL17, Lymiemomster, Redwing57, The king, Mister Mike, julymorning


Follow HealingWell.com on Facebook  Follow HealingWell.com on Twitter  Follow HealingWell.com on Pinterest
Advertisement
Advertisement

©1996-2016 HealingWell.com LLC  All rights reserved.

Advertise | Privacy Policy & Disclaimer