How the Brain Works

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got better things to do
Regular Member


Date Joined Jan 2006
Total Posts : 176
   Posted 4/18/2008 9:43 PM (GMT -6)   

rhondab
Veteran Member


Date Joined Mar 2006
Total Posts : 2146
   Posted 4/18/2008 10:39 PM (GMT -6)   
Hey Life

I have that saved on my computer! I will find it and post it for u. It's so good to see u! How are u friend?? Don't be such a stranger...we miss u!
rhonda
Co-Moderator, MS Forum
 
*~*Sometimes the Lord calms the storm. Sometimes He lets the storm rage and calms His child.*~*
 
Things that make u go hummmm......
*I wonder how much deeper the ocean would be without sponges.*
*One day without sunshine is like...um..well...night?*


NAUTICAL
New Member


Date Joined Apr 2008
Total Posts : 9
   Posted 4/19/2008 3:44 AM (GMT -6)   
YES!! I would like to see this too!!

Is it only for lesions in the brain?

rhondab
Veteran Member


Date Joined Mar 2006
Total Posts : 2146
   Posted 4/19/2008 12:55 PM (GMT -6)   
Hey Life and Nautical

This is what i have. As u all may recall, it's from a med student who was accumulating this per his/her own understanding. Some of this MAY be inaccurate, but so far it seems to be right. Nautical, look about halfway down and u'll see the info on the spinal lesions. I hope i don't get into trouble with the mods for this lengthy post. ;)


CEREBRUM - cognitive area; includes:

Parietal Lobe - receives and evaluates sensory information. It processes information about touch, taste, blood pH, pain, pressure and temperature. Inability to discriminate between sensory stimuli. Damage can cause inability to locate and recognize parts of the body (Neglect), severe Injury: Inability to recognize self, disorientation of environment space, inability to write.

Occipital Lobe - receives and integrates visual input. Can cause loss of ability to recognize object seen in opposite field of vision, "flash of light", "stars"

Temporal Lobe - receives and evaluates auditory and olfactory (smell) input. It's also associated with abstract thought, judgment and memory. Can cause hearing deficits, agitation, irritability, childish behavior, receptive/sensory aphasia.

Somesthetic Cortex - Receives sensory input from various parts of the body. If the primary sensory areas aren't intact, may not be aware of stimulus or not be able to tell where it's coming from.

Somesthetic Association area - takes visual input and compares it to what you already know. Damage can make it hard to recognize familiar objects or people. It also puts 'emotional value' on objects, which can account for some phobias or attractions. You tend to pay more attention to something that's familiar and you have a strong 'association' with.

Primary Motor Area - controls voluntary movement especially fine movements in the hands. It sends the messages to stimulate muscles to contract or relax.

FRONTAL LOBE - helps coordinate movement (balance and muscle coordination). Damage may result in ataxia which is a problem of muscle coordination. This can interfere with a person's ability to walk, talk, eat, and to perform other self care tasks. Can cause impairment of recent memory, inattentiveness, inability to concentrate, behavior disorders, difficulty in learning new information. Lack of inhibition (inappropriate social and/or sexual behavior). Emotional lability. "Flat" affect. Contra-lateral plegia, paresis. Expressive/motor aphasia.
Includes:

Premotor Area - determines which muscles must contract, in what order and to what degree, and sends the messages to the Primary Motor area. It also is involved in motivation and forethought, and helps control emotional behavior and mood. It lets people carry out complex skills and learned tasks, and affects manual dexterity. Damage can cause hesitancy in performing actions that you have learned to do.

Prefrontal area - controls aggression and motivation. It's the area destroyed when a frontal lobotomy is performed, which controls aggression, but also affects personality and motivation in other areas.

Broca's Area (motor speech area) - initiates the movements needed to speak. Hesitant or distorted speech is usually from damage in this area. A word is formulated here as it will be spoken, then it sends the information to the premotor area to decide which muscles have to be used to actually speak it.

Wernicke's Area (sensory speech area) - responsible for understanding and formulating coherent speech. Problems naming objects, comprehending visual language (reading) and repeating spoken sentences can be from damage in this area. Poor word finding is caused by damage isolating this area from parietal or temporal association areas. Being able to speak fluently, but unintelligibly, or poor repetition but good comprehension, is usually caused by damage between this area and Broca's area.

BASAL GANGLIA - inhibits unwanted muscular activity and affects planning and co-ordinating movements and posture. Damage to the area can cause exaggerated or uncontrolled movements, chorea, tremors at rest and with initiation of movement, abnormal increase in muscle tone, difficulty initiating movement.

LIMBIC SYSTEM - influences emotions, responses to the emotions, motivation, mood and sensations of pain and pleasure. Can cause loss of sense of smell and loss of recent memory. Different parts of this system are:

Olfactory Cortex - smell can stimulate hunger in the hypothalamus, and the smell of pheromones bring about sexual attraction. Damage in this area can cause excessive/decreased appetite, increased/decreased sexual activity and increase/loss of fear/anger responses.

Hyppocamus - help transform information from short term to long term memory; damage can cause loss of memory.

Amygdala - mediates both inborn and acquired emotional responses. It seems to be involved in mediating both conscious and unconscious emotional feeling.

Hypothalamus - helps regulate body functions, such as temperature, water and fat metabolism, sleep, sexual activity and emotional control.

CEREBELLUM - Affects coordination and voluntary movement. Can cause tremors, nystagmus, ataxia and lack of coordination/balance. Includes:

Fluccolonodular Lobe - helps with balance

Anterior - helps with gross motor coordination

Posterior - helps with fine motor coordination

All 3 compare signals received from different areas to keep them coordinated and give smooth movements. If retraining is needed, it helps with learning new functions and getting the right muscles to respond if the actions are repeated enough times.

BRAIN STEM - Neurological functions located in the brain stem include those necessary for survival (breathing, digestion, heart rate, blood pressure) and for arousal (being awake and alert). It is the pathway for all fiber tracts passing up and down from peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the highest parts of the brain. This includes:

Medulla Oblongata - primarily a relay station for the crossing of motor tracts between the spinal cord and the brain. It also contains the respiratory, vasomotor and cardiac centers, as well as many mechanisms for controlling reflex activities such as coughing, gagging, swallowing and vomiting

Mid-brain - nerve pathway of the cerebral hemispheres and contains auditory and visual reflex centers

Pons - links different parts of the brain and serves as a relay station from the medulla to the higher cortical structures of the brain. It contains the respiratory center.

______________________________________________
SPINAL COLUMN

C1: blood supply to the head, pituitary gland, scalp, bones of the face, inner and middle ear, sympathetic nervous system, eyes, ears

C2: eyes, optic nerves, auditory nerves, sinuses, mastoid bones, tongue, forehead, heart

C3: cheeks, outer ear, face, bones, teeth, trifacial nerve, lungs

C4: nose, lips, mouth, Eustachian tube, mucus membranes, lungs

C5: vocal cords, neck glands, pharynx

C6: neck muscles, shoulders, tonsils

C7: thyroid gland, bursa in the shoulders, elbows, ulnar nerve

T1: arms from the elbows down, including hands, arms, wrists and fingers; esophagus and trachea, heart

T2: heart, including its valves and covering coronary arteries; lungs bronchial tubes

T3: lungs, bronchial tubes, pleura, chest, breast, heart

T4: gallbladder, common duct, heart, lungs, bronchial tubes

T5: liver, solar plexus, circulation (general), heart, esophagus, stomach

T6: stomach, esophagus, peritoneum, liver, duodenum

T7: kidneys, appendix, testes, ovaries, uterus, adrenal cortex, spleen, pancreas, large intestine

T8: spleen, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, adrenal cortex, small intestine, pyloric valve

T9: adrenal cortex, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, ovaries, uterus, small intestine

T10: kidneys, appendix, testes, ovaries, uterus, adrenal cortex, spleen, pancreas, large intestine

T11: kidneys, ureters, large intestine, urinary bladder, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, uterus, ovaries, ileocecal valve

T12: small intestine, lymph circulation, large intestine, urinary bladder, uterus, kidneys, ileocecal valve

L1: large intestine, inguinal rings, uterus

L2: appendix, abdomen, upper leg, urinary bladder

L3: sex organs, uterus, bladder, knee, prostate, large intestine

L4: prostate gland, muscles of the lower back, sciatic nerve

L5: lower legs, ankles, feet, prostate

Sacrum: hip bones, buttocks, rectum, sex organs, genitalia, urinary bladder, ureter, prostate

Sacral Plexus: Forms the sciatic as well as other nerves that go to muscles, joints and other structures of the legs, knees, ankles, feet and toes

Coccyx: rectum, anus

_________________
Corpus Callosum: What I've found says it's a commonly affected area, but many times causes no symptoms. When it does, it tends to be slight memory loss, sometimes personality changes and sometimes mild cognitive deficits.



Temperoparietal Region: Can affect the memory, language and reading ability among other things. One common symptom seems to be one the person doesn't really notice; 'neglecting' a part of the visual field. From what I've read, you might see an entire image, but only "see" one side of it - the right/left side doesn't register, depending on which side has the lesion.


rhonda
Co-Moderator, MS Forum
 
*~*Sometimes the Lord calms the storm. Sometimes He lets the storm rage and calms His child.*~*
 
Things that make u go hummmm......
*I wonder how much deeper the ocean would be without sponges.*
*One day without sunshine is like...um..well...night?*

Post Edited (rhondab) : 4/19/2008 12:58:26 PM (GMT-6)


got better things to do
Regular Member


Date Joined Jan 2006
Total Posts : 176
   Posted 4/19/2008 6:26 PM (GMT -6)   
Hi Rhonda, Thank you so very much for giving me this info. I searched andsearched and could not find it. If it is to lengthy of a post you can delete it I copyied it to a file and I hope to not lose it this time.Thanks again Rhonda !!
Just when I was getting used to yesterday......Along came today.
 
             
~~LIFE~~


rhondab
Veteran Member


Date Joined Mar 2006
Total Posts : 2146
   Posted 4/19/2008 8:33 PM (GMT -6)   
Hey Life!!
 
This post isn't a prob!! I was teasing Gretchen about it, but every so often it seems ok for us to post something lengthy if it's pertinent...and i think this is. Thanks for copying and please let me know if u need anything else. I'll be glad to try to help! Take such good care friend and let us know how u'r doing!
rhonda
Co-Moderator, MS Forum
 
*~*Sometimes the Lord calms the storm. Sometimes He lets the storm rage and calms His child.*~*
 
Things that make u go hummmm......
*I wonder how much deeper the ocean would be without sponges.*
*One day without sunshine is like...um..well...night?*

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