Nice to see you post. I hope you are doing ok. I can't understand most of the article but the last paragraph seems to explain why gluten is problematic for some people. If would be nice if a supplement like Eggshell membranes could repair things. Overall, the whole article was beyond my scientific knowledge level.
"With respect to these impacts of ESM on microbiota, we have developed the following hypothesis. Since simple carbohydrates and proteins are digested and absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract, complex carbohydrates (e.g., fiber or mucus carbohydrates) or non-digestible proteins (e.g., gluten) are the main nutrients supporting the growth of obligate anaerobic bacteria in the colon. It appears that ESM (which can provide more non-digestible proteins) may have a physiological function similar to that of dietary fiber to stimulate cecal fermentation by providing nitrogen sources to intestinal bacteria. Simultaneously, bacteria that are able to utilize amino acid metabolism dominate the energy supply as a long-term effect in inflamed tissue. Further studies, particularly regarding the mechanisms responsible for restoring a balanced community structure, are required to define potential targets for intervention strategies to improve colitis."
That's the concluding paragraph for anyone interested