Are persistent cells cysts?
there is no such thing as cysts. this is a lyme terminology used for decades without any proof of cystic forms at all by almost all LLMDs and patients.
in 2015 some researchers working in Finland have finally looked with an electron microscope at the bug and took pictures in very great detail, in more detail that was ever done. In these pics it was clear Borrelia does not form cysts, something noted by the authors/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4339653/
"Here we confirmed for the first time that RBs actually have an intact cell envelope with a peptidoglycan layer (Figs 5 and and7),7), indicating that they do not fulfil clearly the definitions of spheroplasts, CWD or encysted forms
although there are some modifications in the cell envelope and cell wall architecture. Furthermore, the intact cell envelope of RBs (Fig. 5), similar to the spirochaete, provides evidence for the previous suggestion (Alban et al., 2000) that RBs are not degrading cells. To avoid confusing terminology, we suggest that B. burgdorferi spherical shapes are termed ‘round bodies’ to describe these forms better.
You realize how bad research is for this disease when you hear 20 years later that nobody has cared to look at the darn bacteria in detail but they all jumped to say "there are cysts involved" then treatment was prescribed to people based on medication that works on bacteria that create encysted forms - that is the nitromidazoles class (tinidazole/metronidazoles), without any proof that actually these kill anything.
We know now they don't , but i continue to see lots of people on the forum that are treated with tindamax & co and ive no idea why this is the case. Maybe these work on coinfections, but they surely dont work on borrelia:
"Nitroaromatic compounds such as metronidazole are prodrugs that are converted into reactive drugs by bacterial nitroreductases. These enzymes are expressed under anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions and target pathogens living in these environments (i.e., Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, and E. coli). We found that some nitroaromatic compounds, like nitrofurantoin, are effective in killing E. coli persisters (45). However, we did not detect homologs of nitroreductases in the genome of B. burgdorferi. The MIC for nitroaromatic compounds (nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone, and metronidazole) was too high to make them useful agents for killing B. burgdorferi persisters
(data not shown)."aac.asm.org/content/59/8/4616.full
anyway, this show how terrible this disease is, it does not only leave you with physical sometimes irreversible damage, but the treatments that doctors give u are not tested or proven to work not even in the petri dish ...