I'm convinced that it can. In fact, I now think that the nerves likely are not even damaged, but that the pain is a simply a result of their being constantly under attack by the Lyme and/or co-infection(s). I came to this conclusion because of an astonishing thing that happened to my mother last week. She's suffered from neuropathy for over 20 years since contracting Lyme disease. Her worst symptom has always been painful peripheral neuropathy in her hands, feet and legs. It initially started in her fingers and soles, then progressed and has become more and more painful over the years.
Then the astonishing thing happened. Last week she was given Bactrim (which she'd never had) for a suspected UTI. She had terrible side effects from it, so we stopped it after three doses. The day after the third and last dose, her neuropathy completely disappeared! We don't know why, but my best guess is that the Bactrim zapped a co-infection that's been causing the neuropathy all these years. She's never had Bactrim, which isn't very effective against Lyme, and has taken several other antibiotics specifically for Lyme that haven't helped her neuropathy much. So, in her case, I think the neuropathy has been caused by a different bug. It's coming back now (obviously, three doses wouldn't have been enough to kill of whatever's causing it) - but the point is, after 20 years of neuropathy, the nerves weren't damaged. Once the bug was zapped that caused it, all the feeling came back with no pain!
Now we need to figure out which co-infection is causing the neuropathy and find out how to treat it (with something other than Bactrim, of course - the side effects were horrendous).
Also, Dr. Horowitz (New York Lyme expert) reports many cases of neuropathy having been resolved after the Lyme and/or co-infection(s) have been successfully treated.
So take heart! I really think that if your girlfriend can get well, her nerve pain will go away.