Study: Limonene prevents biofilms

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Lapis_29
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   Posted 3/4/2018 3:48 PM (GMT -6)   
cool study which shows limonene disrupts biofilms by by inhibiting bacterial adhesion to surfaces, this would make the bacteria much easier to kill


/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26294065

Limonene inhibits streptococcal biofilm formation by targeting surface-associated virulence factors.


Abstract


The present study explores the efficacy of limonene, a cyclic terpene found in the rind of citrus fruits, for antibiofilm potential against species of the genus Streptococcus, which have been deeply studied worldwide owing to their multiple pathogenic efficacy. Limonene showed a concentration-dependent reduction in the biofilm formation of Streptococcus pyogenes (SF370), with minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of 400 μg ml - 1. Limonene was found to possess about 75-95 % antibiofilm activity against all the pathogens tested, viz. Streptococcus pyogenes (SF370 and 5 clinical isolates), Streptococcus mutans (UA159) and Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 6249) at 400 μg ml - 1 concentration. Microscopic analysis of biofilm architecture revealed a quantitative breach in biofilm formation.

Results of a surface-coating assay suggested that the possible mode of action of limonene could be by inhibiting bacterial adhesion to surfaces, thereby preventing the biofilm formation cascade.

Susceptibility of limonene-treated Streptococcus pyogenes to healthy human blood goes in unison with gene expression studies in which the mga gene was found to be downregulated. Anti-cariogenic efficacy of limonene against Streptococcus mutans was confirmed, with inhibition of acid production and downregulation of the vicR gene. Downregulation of the covR, mga and vicR genes, which play a critical role in regulating surface-associated proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus mutans, respectively, is yet further evidence to show that limonene targets surface-associated proteins.

The results of physiological assays and gene expression studies clearly show that the surface-associated antagonistic mechanism of limonene also reduces surface-mediated virulence factors.

astroman
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   Posted 3/4/2018 3:59 PM (GMT -6)   
Cool, I read something similar but not like on PubMed!

So are you using the Jarrow gels I've suggested here for years or the pectin form?

Have you researched both? If not, please do haha....
Had initial lyme symptoms late 80's, then again and with bullseye early 90's. Ended ABX for Lyme in 2015. Rebuilding / fine tuning / fixing muscles since then; member "10 Percenters Lyme Club". What an adventure this has been. Hashimotos adds to the enjoyment.

Lapis_29
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   Posted 3/4/2018 4:16 PM (GMT -6)   
astroman said...
Cool, I read something similar but not like on PubMed!

So are you using the Jarrow gels I've suggested here for years or the pectin form?

Have you researched both? If not, please do haha....


I am using the jarrow gels and they are definitely helping with the mold. I do recommend anyone dealing with mold issues to try it

they are also a great overall liver detox agent

Lapis_29
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   Posted 3/4/2018 4:19 PM (GMT -6)   
good article on the benefits of limonene

/www.selfhacked.com/blog/limonene-health-benefits/

astroman
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   Posted 3/4/2018 4:24 PM (GMT -6)   
Yes its all around good stuff. Great for gut health too.

I've posted on it for years here before:

"The wonders of D-Limonene; for GERD, Candida, liver and gall bladder detox, anziety, sleep + other":
/www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=30&m=3586141

"Detox not working?"
/www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=30&m=3603233

/www.wellnessresources.com/news/d-limonene-help-for-digestion-metabolism-detoxification-anxiety-breast-canc

The GERD forum locked and deleted my post there a few years ago trying helping to cure these people from the evils of proton pump inhibitors using D-limonene. So many ill people think natural supplements are evil and snake oil. Stupid people think like that. Ive since dropped by there with out being locked again..as some tried it and it worked!

Post Edited (astroman) : 3/4/2018 2:43:28 PM (GMT-7)


Girlie
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   Posted 3/4/2018 4:25 PM (GMT -6)   
I'm using the jarrow brand too.

But not for biofilms....added bonus I guess.


I've got some reflux happening again...
Moderator, Lyme Forum
Symp started April/2013; Buhner's Lyme May 15-July24/14; Igenex pos. July 3/14
Doxy: July 4-Aug.24/14;Zithro July26-Aug24/14; Amox + Proben. Aug. 29/14;
added biaxin Sept. 26/14
Disc. amox,added Ceftin Nov. 20th.;
Disc. biaxin added Buhner bart herbs Dec/14;Jan/15 pulsing Tinda (w/ Ceftin);
Abx/herb break Apr-July/15; July-mino; Aug. added Rif;
Nov./15 mino - to biaxi

dbwilco
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   Posted 3/4/2018 4:30 PM (GMT -6)   
another reason why i love astroman

physedgirl09
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Date Joined May 2017
Total Posts : 434
   Posted 3/4/2018 5:52 PM (GMT -6)   
Hi guys!

Would love to try this product .. Could You Give Me Some Info On It..
What Dosage?
When Do You Take It? Away From Abx/supp?
Where Can I Buy It?

Thanx!

Hoagie
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Date Joined Jul 2017
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   Posted 3/4/2018 5:57 PM (GMT -6)   
physedgirl09 said...
Hi guys!

Would love to try this product .. Could You Give Me Some Info On It..
What Dosage?
When Do You Take It? Away From Abx/supp?
Where Can I Buy It?

Thanx!


I believe the recommended dosage is 1000 mg 2x day.

/www.amazon.com/gp/aw/d/B0025PX4JC/ref=mp_s_a_1_1_a_it?ie=UTF8&qid=1520204039&sr=8-1&keywords=jarrow+limonene&dpPl=1&dpid=41uRKaimLpL&ref=plSrch

I may be wrong, but I don't believe it matters or not if you take it away from abx.

Vitacost might have it cheaper than amazon. I'm about to order 2 bottles.

Girlie
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Date Joined May 2014
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   Posted 3/4/2018 6:08 PM (GMT -6)   
I bought mine from Amazon.

I take one capsule every other day when I'm on it.

I take it in the evening.
Moderator, Lyme Forum
Symp started April/2013; Buhner's Lyme May 15-July24/14; Igenex pos. July 3/14
Doxy: July 4-Aug.24/14;Zithro July26-Aug24/14; Amox + Proben. Aug. 29/14;
added biaxin Sept. 26/14
Disc. amox,added Ceftin Nov. 20th.;
Disc. biaxin added Buhner bart herbs Dec/14;Jan/15 pulsing Tinda (w/ Ceftin);
Abx/herb break Apr-July/15; July-mino; Aug. added Rif;
Nov./15 mino - to biaxi

astroman
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Date Joined Mar 2014
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   Posted 3/4/2018 6:22 PM (GMT -6)   
/www.wellnessresources.com/news/d-limonene-help-for-digestion-metabolism-detoxification-anxiety-breast-cancSafety and Absorption of D-Limonene :


["D-Limonene is rapidly and easily absorbed by the human digestive tract. The oil is spread throughout the body with a preference for fatty tissues such as white adipose tissue, breast tissue, the liver and brain. It exerts direct metabolic activity as well as combines with oxygen to produce a variety of secondary metabolites that are also biologically active.

An oral dose of 1.6 grams (1,600 mg) in humans was mostly cleared through the urine within 48 hours. A dose of 500 mg from specially prepared lemonade was cleared within 24 hours.

**The biological activity of a dose of d-Limonene lasts from 12 - 24 hours. A single dose of 20 grams of d-Limonene in healthy men was found to have no toxic effects. Ongoing supplementation with 100 mg per kilogram (about 7 grams per day for an average adult) was found to have no toxic effects.**

Doses up to 15 grams per day have been used in human breast cancer studies with no toxic effects. High doses of d-Limonene are considered safe for human consumption, with no toxicity to the liver or kidneys.

At these higher doses a person may experience belching of the oil, which is annoying but is not a health problem. Because the nutrient has relaxing and anti-anxiety properties, higher doses may make a person tired, (which may be quite useful as a sleep aid). Because the nutrient moves peristaltic motion forward, higher doses could cause diarrhea. Because the nutrient unclogs sludge in the gall bladder, higher doses could move stagnant bile rapidly into the digestive tract, which could cause nausea. Because d-Limonene has anti-fungal properties some individuals with an overgrowth of Candida albicans could experience a "die off" from a high dose (nausea or flu-like symptoms). These symptoms have been reported in human studies, in some people, when doses reach 7 - 15 grams per day. In other words, most uncomfortable symptoms with very high dose d-Limonene are not toxic symptoms but reflect a dose that is higher than can be easily metabolized based on a person’s existing metabolic situation. If any of these should occur when taking d-Limonene, cut back the dose or discontinue for a few days, then try a lower dose.

Useful metabolic doses of d-Limonene range from 1,000 mg to 6,000 mg per day (1 – 6 grams per day)."]




Most I ever took was 1000mg x 2 a day. Take when your relaxing as it can make orange burps for ten min or so if your moving around. When lyme was raging, I wanted to take more, but there is not much dependable info taking this with ABX.

Now I take only one every other night for maintenance / gut health. Feels like it last longer than 24 hrs.
Had initial lyme symptoms late 80's, then again and with bullseye early 90's. Ended ABX for Lyme in 2015. Rebuilding / fine tuning / fixing muscles since then; member "10 Percenters Lyme Club". What an adventure this has been. Hashimotos adds to the enjoyment.

Post Edited (astroman) : 3/4/2018 7:54:44 PM (GMT-7)


Lapis_29
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Date Joined Sep 2017
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   Posted 3/4/2018 6:53 PM (GMT -6)   
i am taking 1gr/day, half hour before eating, and away from any herbals and supplements wtih plenty of water

NicHostetler
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Date Joined Mar 2017
Total Posts : 647
   Posted 3/4/2018 8:39 PM (GMT -6)   
I love D Lemonone. I think it was you, astroman, that recommended it to me about a year ago. Every time my acid reflux flairs I take it at night and it goes away immediately. All the other benefits are awesome too! I should probably just take it consistently every other night.
Very sick starting around 07/2016
Started treatment 03/2017
Bixain & Cefdinir - 3 months - plateaued
Then Biaxin & Minocycline - 3 months - did not improve
Tinidazole - 500MG 2x a day - 2 weeks
Now taking:
Mepron 5mL 2x a day
Zithromax
Nystatin
Cats Claw - 30 drops 2x a day
Gou Teng - 30 drops 2x a day
CSA - 40 drops 2x a day
Japanese Knotweed - 40 drops 2x a day

WalkingbyFaith
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Date Joined Aug 2017
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   Posted 3/5/2018 9:48 AM (GMT -6)   
This all sounds great, but I still have questions. I've been taking Pectasol-C powder long term and usually take 5- 10 grams in a 24 hour period. I'm supposed to be working up to 15 grams.

Those who are taking d-limonene are taking far lower doses than that.

Are modified citrus pectin (like Pectasol-C) and d-limonene equally interchangeable?

Does d-limonene do something that Pectasol-C doesn't?

Any studies comparing the two?

WalkingbyFaith
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Date Joined Aug 2017
Total Posts : 2020
   Posted 3/5/2018 9:53 AM (GMT -6)   
Lapis,

This study is in relation to strep. Sounds like it could possibly work for MARCONS. Are they saying that oral intake of d-limonene is effective against strep in the nasal or sinus passages? For it to disrupt biofilm, it seems it would have to touch the biofilm, i.e. be taken intranasally somehow.

WalkingbyFaith
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Date Joined Aug 2017
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   Posted 3/5/2018 10:21 AM (GMT -6)   
I didn't get to listen to or watch the metals conference links yet, but I did notice that Dr Eliaz was in the list. He patented Pectasol-C and had a study done on it. Did anyone happen to listen to his talk?

Did any of the other speakers talk about modified citrus pectin or d-limonene?

Lapis_29
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Date Joined Sep 2017
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   Posted 3/5/2018 10:36 AM (GMT -6)   
WalkingbyFaith said...

Are modified citrus pectin (like Pectasol-C) and d-limonene equally interchangeable?

Does d-limonene do something that Pectasol-C doesn't?

Any studies comparing the two?


limonene is WAY more concentrated than mcp or pectasol . Having used all of these products I can say the limonene has very noticable affects on my mold reactions, while mcp has mild affetcs.

I do not know of any studies comparing the two

Lapis_29
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Date Joined Sep 2017
Total Posts : 882
   Posted 3/5/2018 10:45 AM (GMT -6)   
WalkingbyFaith said...
Lapis,

This study is in relation to strep. Sounds like it could possibly work for MARCONS. Are they saying that oral intake of d-limonene is effective against strep in the nasal or sinus passages? For it to disrupt biofilm, it seems it would have to touch the biofilm, i.e. be taken intranasally somehow.


this was not a study done on humans so I dont think we know the answers. We do know that limonene travels throughout the body very well and deposits in fatty tissues and other areas.

personally I think the good results I have from it have everything to do with liver clearing and detox. I think people with mold sensitivites just dont clear the toxins from the liver, and limonene helps that.

the other possibility is that, like cholestryramine, limonene is a bile acid binder and binds to the mold toxins in the bile and removes them from the body. So it might work like cholestyramine but without the nasty side affects. Maybe. I dont know

D-Limonene has been shown to clear the gall bladder and get the bile flow moving as well. It also activates phase I and II detoxification enzymes.

Lapis_29
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Date Joined Sep 2017
Total Posts : 882
   Posted 3/5/2018 11:07 AM (GMT -6)   
check it out, I found a study which shows D-Lim may in fact be a bile acid sequestrant, just like cholestyramine!

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract 17113:

Dietary Supplementation of Hyodeoxycholic Acid and D-Limonene Decreased Atherosclerotic Lesion Formation in LDLR Knockout Mouse


Abstract

In this study, we examined the effects of dietary supplementation of two natural emulsifiers, hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) and D-limonene (D-Lim), on atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDLRKO mouse. Female LDLRKO mice were maintained on a western diet for 8 weeks, then divided into 3 groups that received the following diets for 15 weeks before euthanization, chow diet, chow diet + 1.25% HDCA, or chow diet + 5% D-Lim. We found that 1.25% HDCA was able to significantly suppress the development of plaque area throughout the aorta (beyond the root of the aorta) by 47% (p<0.01) over 15 weeks of treatment. 5% D-lim treated mice showed a 25% (p<0.05) reduction in plaque formation. Atherosclerotic lesion size at the innominate artery was decreased by 94% (p<0.0001) and 53% (p<0.05) in the HDCA and D-Lim groups, respectively, as compared to the chow diet group. Plasma VLDL/IDL/LDL cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by 61% (p<0.0001) and 23% (p=0.01) in the HDCA and D-Lim groups, respectively, as compared to the chow diet group. We found that HDCA supplementation decreased cholesterol absorption from gut by 76% (p<0.0001), whereas D-Lim had no effect on cholesterol absorption.

Interestingly, hepatic mRNA level of Cyp7a1, a key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, was significantly increased by more than 100% (p<0.05) in D-Lim group, suggesting D-Lim may act as a bile sequestrant in the gut.

In addition, HDL isolated from the HDCA and D-Lim groups exhibited significantly increased ability (49% and 45% increase, respectively) to mediate cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded RAW 264.7 cells as compared to those of the chow diet group. In summary, our data demonstrated that HDCA supplementation decreased plasma VLDL/IDL/LDL cholesterol levels mainly through its ability to block intestinal cholesterol absorption.

D-Lim decreased plasma VLDL/IDL/LDL cholesterol levels probably through decreased bile acid re-absorption in the intestine and increased conversion of cholesterol into bile acid in the liver.

HDCA and D-Lim improve the cholesterol efflux ability of HDL as well. These anti-atherogenic effects resulted in significantly decreased atherosclerosis in LDLRKO mice receiving HDCA or D-Lim. HDCA and D-Lim may be new candidates for anti-atherosclerotic drugs.

WalkingbyFaith
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Date Joined Aug 2017
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   Posted 3/5/2018 11:50 AM (GMT -6)   
Lapis,

Yippee!!! Thank you immensely for the thorough and detailed answers. That's exactly what I needed to hear. I will place an order very soon.

WalkingbyFaith
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Date Joined Aug 2017
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   Posted 3/5/2018 9:40 PM (GMT -6)   
Lapis_29 said...
i am taking 1gr/day, half hour before eating, and away from any herbals and supplements wtih plenty of water


How far away from herbs and supplements?

I take digestive enzymes and fish oil at the beginning of meals. How do I manage that with d-limonene? If it's a bile sequestrant, then yeah you're right, it should be 1/2 hour before meals. That's how I was supposed to take the cholestyramine.

Lapis_29
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Date Joined Sep 2017
Total Posts : 882
   Posted 3/6/2018 12:51 AM (GMT -6)   
yeah i take it about 1/2 hr before eating first meal of the day
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