which part of brain/spine lesions affect what???

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Veteran Member

Date Joined Dec 2005
Total Posts : 896
   Posted 9/10/2006 3:47 PM (GMT -6)   
Hi All,
I have really been wondering which areas of the brain and spine affect what parts of the body.  So far this is the only thing I could find.  Does anyone have anything better?  I'm sorry, it's pretty long.
Lesion locations and Symptoms

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CEREBRUM - cognitive area; incldes:

Parietal Lobe - receives and evaluates sensory information. It processes information about touch, taste, blood pH, pain, pressure and temperature. Inability to discriminate between sensory stimuli. Damage can cause inability to locate and recognize parts of the body (Neglect), severe Injury: Inability to recognize self, disorientation of environment space, inability to write.

Occipital Lobe - receives and integrates visual input. Can cause loss of ability to recognize object seen in opposite field of vision, "flash of light", "stars"

Temporal Lobe - receives and evaluates auditory and olfactory (smell) input. It's also associated with abstract thought, judgement and memory. Can cause hearing deficits, aggitation, irritability, childish behavior, receptive/sensory aphasia.

Somesthetic Cortex
- Receives sensory input from varius parts of the body. If the primary sensory areas aren't intact, may not be aware of stimilus or not be able to tell where it's coming from.

Somesthetic Association area - takes visual input and compares it to what you already know. Damage can make it hard to recognize familar objects or people. It also puts 'emotional value' on objects, which can account for some phobias or attractions. You tend to pay more attention to something that's familiar and you have a strong 'association' with.

Primary Motor Are
a - controls voluntary movement especially fine movements in the hands. It sends the messages to stimulate muscles to contract or relax.

FRONTAL LOBE - helps coordinate movement (balance and muscle coordination). Damage may result in ataxia which is a problem of muscle coordination. This can interfere with a person's ability to walk, talk, eat, and to perform other self care tasks. Can cause impairment of recent memory, inattentiveness, inability to concentrate, behavior disorders, difficulty in learning new information. Lack of inhibition (inappropriate social and/or sexual behavior). Emotional lability. "Flat" affect. Contralateral plegia, paresis. Expressive/motor aphasia.

Premotor Area
- determines which muscles must contract, in what order and to what degree, and sends the messages to the Primary Motor area. It also is involved in motivation and forethought, and helps control emotional behavior and mood. It lets people carry out complex skills and learned tasks, and affects manual dexterity. Damage can cause hesitency in performing actions that you have learned to do.

Prefrontal area - controls aggression and motivation. It's the area destroyed when a frontal lobotomy is performed, which controls aggression, but also affects personality and motivation in other areas.

Broca's Area (motor speech area) - initiates the movements needed to speak. Hesitant or distorted speech is usually from damage in this area. A word is formulated here as it will be spoken, then it sends the information to the premotor area to decide which muscles have to be used to actually speak it.

Wernicke's Area (sensory speech area)
- responsible for understanding and formulating coherent speech. Problems naming objects, comprehending visual language (reading) and repeating spoken sentences can be from damage in this area. Poor word finding is caused by damage isolating this area from parietal or temporal association areas. Being able to speak fluently, but unintelligibly, or poor repetition but good comprehension, is usually caused by damage between this area and Broca's area.

- inhibits unwanted muscular activity and affects planning and co-ordinting movements and posture. Damage to the area can cause exaggerated or uncontrolled movements, chorea, tremors at rest and with initiation of movement, abnormal increase in muscle tone, difficulty initiating movement.

LIMBIC SYSTEM - influences emotions, responses to the emotions, motivation, mood and sensations of pain and pleasure. Can cause loss of sense of smell and loss of recent memory. Different parts of this system are:

Olfactory Cortex
- smell can stimulate hunger in the hypothalamus, and the smell of pheromones bring about sexual attraction. Damage in this area can cause excessive/decreased appetite, increased/decreased sexual activity and increase/loss of fear/anger responses.

Hyppocamus - help transform information from short term to long term memory; damage can cause loss of memory.

Amygdala - mediates both inborn and acquired emotional responses. It seems to be involved in mediating both conscious and unconscious emotional feeling.

Hypothalamus - helps regulate body functions, such as temperature, water and fat metabolism, sleep, sexual activity and emotional control.

CEREBELLUM - Affects coordination and voluntary movement. Can cause tremors, nystagmus, ataxia and lack of coordination/balance. Includes:

Fluccolonodular Lobe
- helps with balance

Anterior - helps with gross motor coordination

Posterior - helps with fine motor coordination

All 3 compare signals received from different areas to keep them coordinated and give smooth movements. If retraining is needed, it helps with learning new functions and getting the right muscles to respond if the actions are repeated enough times.

BRAIN STEM - Neurological functions located in the brainstem include those necessary for survival (breathing, digestion, heart rate, blood pressure) and for arousal (being awake and alert). It is the pathway for all fiber tracts passing up and down from peripheral nerves and spinal cord to the highest parts of the brain. This includes:

Medulla Oblongata
- primarily a relay station for the crossing of motor tracts between the spinal cord and the brain. It also contains the respiratory, vasomotor and cardiac centers, as well as many mechanisms for controlling reflex activities such as coughing, gagging, swallowing and vomiting

- nerve pathway of the cerebral hemispheres and contains auditory and visual reflex centers

Pons - links different parts of the brain and serves as a relay station from the medulla to the higher cortical structures of the brain. It contains the respiratory center.


C1: blood supply to the head, pituitary gland, scalp, bones of the face, inner and middle ear, sympathetic nervous system, eyes, ears

C2: eyes, optic nerves, auditory nerves, sinuses, mastoid bones, tongue, forehead, heart

C3: cheeks, outer ear, face, bones, teeth, trifacial nerve, lungs

C4: nose, lips, mouth, Eustachian tube, mucus membranes, lungs

C5: vocal cords, neck glands, pharynx

C6: neck muscles, shoulders, tonsils

C7: thyroid gland, bursa in the shoulders, elbows, ulnar nerve

T1: arms from the elbows down, including hands, arms, wrists and fingers; esophagus and trachea, heart

T2: heart, including its valves and covering coronary arteries; lungs bronchial tubes

T3: lungs, bronchial tubes, pleura, chest, breast, heart

T4: gallbladder, common duct, heart, lungs, bronchial tubes

T5: liver, solar plexus, circulation (general), heart, esophagus, stomach

T6: stomach, esophagus, peritoneum, liver, duodenum

T7: kidneys, appendix, testes, ovaries, uterus, adrenal cortex, spleen, pancreas, large intestine

T8: spleen, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, adrenal cortex, small intestine, pyloric valve

T9: adrenal cortex, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, ovaries, uterus, small intestine

T10: kidneys, appendix, testes, ovaries, uterus, adrenal cortex, spleen, pancreas, large intestine

T11: kidneys, ureters, large intestine, urinary bladder, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, uterus, ovaries, ileocecal valve

T12: small intestine, lymph circulation, large intestine, urinary bladder, uterus, kdneys, ileocecal valve

L1: large intesine, inguinal rings, uterus

L2: appendix, abdomen, upper leg, urinary bladder

L3: sex organs, uterus, bladder, knee, prostate, large intestine

L4: prostate gland, muscles of the lower back, sciatic nerve

L5: lower legs, ankles, feet, prostate

Sacrum: hip bones, buttocks, rectum, sex organs, genitalia, urinary bladder, ureter, prostate

Sacral Plexus: Forms the sciatic as well as other nerves that go to muscles, joints and other structures of the legs, knees, ankles, feet and toes

Coccyx: rectum, anus
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Michelle ><>
Don't be so busy doing good
that you neglect to do what's right!

Regular Member

Date Joined Apr 2006
Total Posts : 366
   Posted 9/10/2006 7:54 PM (GMT -6)   

I don't have anything better, but did want to comment that this is pretty cool. Very interesting read, Thanks.

When everything's coming your way, you're in the wrong lane.

Veteran Member

Date Joined Jun 2005
Total Posts : 2135
   Posted 9/10/2006 8:08 PM (GMT -6)   
Very interesting! Lots more than I wanna know, though! :)

I don't think I've seen a neuro get that specific with someone who has MS..just "you have lesions in the brain", or "on the spinal cord", or "both"... that "explain your symptoms"...
...I am not a doctor, nor health professional, and don't pretend to be one, here.....

Veteran Member

Date Joined Jun 2005
Total Posts : 1852
   Posted 9/10/2006 9:20 PM (GMT -6)   
Wow Michelle, great find, havent seen anything else so specific!
Allow Healing Well to continue to help others, clink link for details

Veteran Member

Date Joined Mar 2006
Total Posts : 2146
   Posted 2/3/2007 4:11 PM (GMT -6)   
bump for newbies
Co-Moderator, MS Forum
*~*Sometimes the Lord calms the storm. Sometimes He lets the storm rage and calms His child.*~*

Regular Member

Date Joined Jun 2006
Total Posts : 329
   Posted 2/3/2007 4:40 PM (GMT -6)   
Thank you Rhonda!
I not only use all the brains that I have, but all that I can borrow.
  Author: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), 28th U.S. President

Jenny R.
Regular Member

Date Joined Sep 2006
Total Posts : 162
   Posted 2/3/2007 5:42 PM (GMT -6)   
This is very interesting, I have the same chart of the spinal column distributions that I got from my chiropractors office.  When I did find out that I had a bulging disk at C-3, C-4, I thought, hum, where is that chart that I had.  I dug it out, C-3 says face, cheek, ear, etc....  Well, I asked a question on the med-help forum a few months back about the disk problem causing the bug crawling sensation that I get on my face when I move my neck a certain way, the doc replied and said that a lesion, or pinched nerve in the neck will not affect the face.  Well, I know, I have been dealing with this weird feeling for 6 years.  It is definently provoked by neck movement.  The first time it happened, I was in my shed, stretching above my head to put a box in the loft for storage, and I felt this weird feeling, it scared me.  My neuro that I see now also says "no".  I also seen this chart shellypoo, on the msworld website.  It interesting!!!!!!  I can also push on a certain spot on my neck, under my ear where it is real tender, and the sensation will start in my face.  Weird!!!

Tena Gibbs
New Member

Date Joined May 2017
Total Posts : 1
   Posted 6/3/2017 8:58 AM (GMT -6)   
Great find!! I've has MS for at least 30 yrs, been diagnosed for 21, a Nurse by profession, never had a patient with MS!!πŸ™„πŸ™„ so I had no knowledge OKC the disease... wish I'd found this chart yrs ago when I had my diagnosis & support group for 12 yrs until my cognitive function was to impaired to conduct a worthwhile meet', I also had to quit work'n 3 & a half yrs after my first crash & burn exacerbation...hardest day of my life!!😯😯this chart explains so much!!
Thanks & God Bless, Tena

Regular Member

Date Joined Sep 2015
Total Posts : 245
   Posted 6/3/2017 10:09 AM (GMT -6)   
Tena Gibbs said...
Great find!! I've has MS for at least 30 yrs, been diagnosed for 21, a Nurse by profession, never had a patient with MS!!πŸ™„πŸ™„ so I had no knowledge OKC the disease... wish I'd found this chart yrs ago when I had my diagnosis & support group for 12 yrs until my cognitive function was to impaired to conduct a worthwhile meet', I also had to quit work'n 3 & a half yrs after my first crash & burn exacerbation...hardest day of my life!!😯😯this chart explains so much!!
Thanks & God Bless, Tena

Hi Tena Gibbs smile

This chart floated around MS forums many years ago and was quite interesting. Much of what is on the chart isn't correct, specifically in the case of Multiple Sclerosis. My advice: Do not to connect your symptoms and lesions to this chart.

Take care!
Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis in 1985
CPTSD diagnosed Feb 2004 (PTSD since age 2), Anxiety/Panic attacks secondary to PTSD.
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