Billymac-explained the fpsa test which another parameter to look at, but only as a possible clue. The newer urine test PCA3 is another tool that can be used (see-google Bostwick laboratories for info on that)it is said to be quite accurate, I don't know. An oncologist can do other tests to like: PAP, pyrilinks but those are just kind of marker tests and might be only useful on advanced prostate cancer patients. I am a patient diagnosed in 2002 with plenty of PCa 12/12 (all 80-90% levels), but since treamtents and stuff....my PAP and pyrilinks (and other)tests do not reveal anything at this stage and other blood tests and marker items are all in normal ranges (nice to see of course), but no warranty on PCa.
Did you know there is such a thing as a PCa sniffying-detecting dogs??? I have heard about
such, might have been in England, hey dogs got the nose, how they trained them is beyond me. Maybe there is a detection center in England or wherever, PCa is stranger than fiction my friend.
Biopsies are the most definitive test that they have currently as for accuracy and even then, it is not as good as we patients actually need for total assessment. Per Dr. Strum- (ruling out protatitis first and perhaps some bph increases) velocity over time (continuously) and psa doubling times (within one year), are your red flag that should or could lead to biopsies.
website info on dogs for PCa: www.nurseweek.com/news/Features/05-05/CancerSniffingdogs.asp
(there are others if you google prostate cancer and sniffing dogs)
Maybe some one else has something to add to this.