Welcome to HW...sorry you have to be here but I think you will find lots of great info and support on this forum.
To directly answer your question, we got the results over the phone. My biopsy was on a Friday, the samples went to Bostwick and the doctor called early the next week and gave us the bad news. He was specific in stating things like "early stage cancer", very treatable, lots of options and provided the Gleason score, number of samples with cancer and % cancer in each core. He then said he would fit us into his schedule within two days for us to discuss it in depth including treatment alternatives.
Frankly, I found it extremely helpful that I got the news ahead of the doctor's appointment. We were able to get over the initial shock and get prepared with some basic questions. We would never have been that prepared if we had not had the news ahead of time.
I certainly don't know the rules in Canada and each physician probably handles things differntly anyway. However, if you want to know and are having this much anxiety now...why not call the physician and request (demand) to speak to him or have him call you back. Then explain that you want to know the news NOW so that you can be prepared with your questions when you meet with him,
Hopefully your questions about the job and time off will turn out to be unnecessry. However, again to answer you, the average time to return to work after surgery seems to be several weeks (others with experience will undoubtedly chime in here). After brachytherapy it is a couple of days and external radiation will require multiple sessions over some weeks. Of course you may or may not be "average" so take that into consideration.
Good luck and please keep us posted.
Age 62 (64 now), G 3 + 4 = 7, T1C, PSA 4.2, 2/16 cancerous, 27cc. Brachytherapy 12/9/08. 73 Iodine-125 seeds. Procedure went great, catheter out before I went home, only minor discomfort. Everything continues to function normally as of 12/8/10. PSA: 6 mo 1.4, 1 yr. 1.0, 2 yr. .8. My docs are "delighted"! My journey: