Welcome Jake. Sorry you had to join the club, but if you had to deal with this stuff, you've found a great place to get questions answered based on a wealth of experiences across the community. Share as much info as you are comfortable and folks here will give you a world of great insights.
If you were just diagnosed, you have a while to make a decision on how you want to treat your PCa. Surgury is an excellent option under the right conditions with an experienced surgeon. There are many other excellent options as well. Take your time to learn about them and make the choice that you feel best with. Scan the posts on this forum to get a lot of insight to how folks are doing after each of the different treatment approaches and ask lots of questions. Most important is take your time.
Share all your numbers (see the kind of info in my signature and others) and folks can give you advice more tailored to your situation. As Purgatory mentions, each person's situation is different, so one man's experience will be different from the next. So many variables.
Recovery time includes three main components from my perspective: 1) surgical recovery until you can start back into activity, 2) continence recovery, 3) Erectile function. I'm fairly new at this game, surgery was only 2.5 weeks ago. So I'm still in #1 and #2.
#1 is about 4-6 weeks in normal circumstances before you can start back into strengthening and normal activities. Again each person is different. Depends on how fit you were beforehand, what level of activity, etc.. As with all things, let your doctor be the one to give you guidance
#2 this varies drastically by person. For the rare few, they are continent almost immediately after catheter removal. For others it is 6 months, 1 year, or never. Again so variable. I met the common medical definition of continent (less than 1 pad per day) the day after catheter removal. I am still dripping a little 2 weeks later and it is getting less and less each day to the point I'm nearly dry and going without pads at this point. But I hear my experience is not the norm, I'm very fortunate. The doctors all told me I'd do well quickly because I am in very strong physical shape. Your mileage may vary.
#3 is rarely less than 6 months, sounds like more commonly a year or more, and for some never. Clearly you never get any better than you are today. If you have good erectile function, you are starting from a great point. If you don't, of course you can at best get back to where you are now. This depends on whether your nerves are spared, insult to them during surgery, and lots of other variables.
The reality is your most important concern is cure from the cancer. If they have to take the nerves to save your life, do it. There are medical approaches to address ED if that is a problem long term.
A couple books commonly recommended include Dr. Patrick Walsh's Surviving Prostate Cancer, Dr. Scholz's Invasion of the Prostate Snatchers, and when you get a little further along in your knowledge base - Dr. Mulhall's Saving your sex life, A guide for men with prostate cancer. The first 2 books will get you miles up the learning curve. Must reads. They will educate you on all the treatment options, side effects of each, etc.. They will enable you to understand all that the doctors are saying, know what questions to ask, and how to understand the answers. They will help you choose the treatment approach right for you. Mulhall's book is all about rehab after surgery, which if you are doing surgery you want to read well beforehand as that will help you select a surgeon/urologist to work with long term.
Again, most important, take your time. Educate yourself, ask lots of questions here, and make the decision right for you, then select the best practitioner of that treatment approach you are comfortable getting to. Some people prefer their local specialists, others are more able to travel to get to someone they feel is best. A personal decision.
Welcome and hang in there.