Malignant prostate cells produce more PSA than healthy cells per unit volume, so a PSA that is only slightly elevated can mean that the cancer was diagnosed early, when the number of individual malignant areas (lesions) are few and/or the lesions are small. Having more, or bigger, lesions means the volume of cancerous cells is larger, resulting in greater PSA. PSA values that are much higher than normal sometimes indicate there is PCa outside the prostate (metastases). PSAs over 10 represent a higher risk for mets, and those over 20 an even higher risk.
When PCa is completely prostate-confined, the total amount of cancer is a much more important risk factor for future met risk than the
location of the lesions (unilateral or bilateral). In fact, staging in recent prostatectomy reports no longer specify whether the cancer was uni- or bilateral for prostate-confined cancer, but they do estimate the amount if cancer in the form of the percentage of the prostate involved by cancer.
Post Edited (DjinTonic) : 11/16/2020 9:00:59 PM (GMT-7)