Recent Advances in the Management of Metastatic Prostate Cancer
(2021, ASCO Review, Full Text)
Management of metastatic prostate cancer has undergone a revolution over the past decade with the introduction of several novel agents and repurposing of others. Several clinical trials reported improved outcomes with the intensification of androgen deprivation therapy by the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or novel hormonal agents (abiraterone, enzalutamide, or apalutamide) in the metastatic castration-sensitive state. Relugolix has been recently approved as the first oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist agent with a superior cardiovascular side-effect profile, and serum testosterone suppression compared with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, leuprolide. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors (olaparib and rucaparib) have demonstrated significant clinical benefit for patients harboring deleterious mutations in genes belonging to the homologous recombination repair pathway and have received Food and Drug Administration approval. Recently, lutetium-177-prostate-specific membrane antigen-617 with standard of care treatment has shown to improve overall survival in men with advanced-stage prostate-specific membrane antigen–positive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. These recent approvals, successes, and the ongoing investigation of multiple novel agents are expected to continue to dramatically improve survival outcomes of men with metastatic prostate cancer in the coming years.