A comment regarding Da Vinci robotic vs. open--I have heard that the blood loss with an open is often significant enough that the surgeon is performing at least part of the surgery by "feel" because the surgical field is obscured by blood. With the da vinci there is far less blood loss, the field of surgery is far more visible, with 15x magnification, 5 to 1 translation of motion, allowing for very very precise movements, and the arms of the robot never, ever get tired. I was amazed at the tremendous power and huge size of the hands of my urologist, but now that I better understand the physical challenges of an open surgery, I can see that his strength comes from 30 years of extremely strenuous exercise (the surgeries). All that effort can carry with it the risk of fatigue on the part of the surgical team. With da vinci this is far less. I guess video games can serve as training for some fields!