I am truly sorry to hear about your father. I will try and help with your questions.
Here is the meaning of adenocarcinoma.
ADENOCARCINOMA : The word generally used to describe epithelial tissue in a gland that has become malignant. It is identified in a pathology laboratory and given the name of the tissue affected. eg the prostate gland tumour gets the name 'prostate adenocarcinoma', because its cells resemble the cells of the prostate.
As to the staging of prostate cancer here is the definition.
T1: tumor present, but not dectable clinically or with imaging
T2: the tumor can be felt (palpated) on examination, but has not spread outside the prostate
- T1a: tumor was incidentally found in less than 5% of prostate tissue resected (for other reasons)
- T1b: tumor was incidentally found in greater than 5% of prostate tissue resected
- T1c: tumor was found in a needle biopsy performed due to an elevated serum PSA
T3: the tumor has spread through the prostatic capsule (if it is only part-way through, it is still T2)
- T2a: the tumor is in half or less than half of one of the prostate gland's two lobes
- T2b: the tumor is in more than half of one lobe, but not both
- T2c: the tumor is in both lobes
T4: the tumor has invaded other nearby structures
- T3a: the tumor has spread through the capsule on one or both sides
- T3b: the tumor has invaded one or both seminal vesicles
The meaning of the Gleason scores is as follows.
GLEASON SCORES :This refers to the system of judging the aggressiveness of the tumour. It is one of the factors by which the likelihood of the cancer spreading beyond the prostate capsule is judged. A sample of tissue taken from the prostate is examined under a microscope. Two areas where the cells are not normal are selected [these are referred to as foci]. Each is graded on a scale of 1 through 5, where 1 is well differentiated [good] and 5 is poorly differentiated [bad]. The two grades are added together to give a score on a scale of 2 to 10, where 6 is the mid-point. The most common scores are 5 and 6.
Hope this helps some.