Feeling good doing great, docs at Mayo couldn't help, stumbled upon Magnesium and boom there it is.
CHEAP ANTI-TNF-a w NO SIDES = Strontium citrate
Introduction. Strontium salts are anti-irritants for chemically induced sensory irritation. Interstitial cystitis is a painful disease without definitive therapy. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of strontium in bladder with experimental interstitial cystitis model. Material and Methods. Rats’ bladders in control group were instilled with NaCl. Second group was instilled with E. coli LPS. Third group was instilled with strontium. Fourth group was initially instilled with strontium and then LPS. Fifth group was instilled with LPS initially and then strontium. Urine of rats was collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results. Histamine and TNF-α changes were statistically significant in the second group but were not significant in the third group. When we compared the histamine levels of second via fourth and fifth groups the changes were statistically not significant. When we compared the TNF-α levels of second via fourth and fifth groups the changes were statistically significant. Conclusions. In our model, strontium did not make any significant changes in histopathology or histamine levels; however, it significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α. Given the role of TNF-α in the physiopathology of interstitial cystitis, these results suggested that further studies are required to evaluate the potential use of strontium in the management of interstitial cystitis.
Korgali E1, Dundar G1, Acikalin K2, Akyol M3, Tutar Y4, Ayan S1, Gokce G1, Gultekin E Y1
1. Cumhuriyet University Medical Faculty, Dept. of Urology, Sivas, Turkey, 2. Gaziosman Pasa University Natural
Sciences and Engineering Faculty, Dept. Of Bioengineering, Tokat, Turkey, 3. Cumhuriyet University Medical
Faculty, Dept. of Dermatology, Sivas, Turkey, 4. Cumhuriyet University Pharmacy Faculty, Dept. of Biochemistry,
THE EFFECTS OF STRONTIUM CHLORIDE ON EXPERIMENTAL BLADDER
INFLAMMATION IN RAT
Hypothesis / aims of study
Strontium salts are effective and selective anti-irritants for chemically induced sensory irritation associated with stinging, burning,
or itching especially on the skin. Interstitial cystitis is a painful bladder disease characterized by urgency, frequency and variable
inflammation but there is no curative therapy.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether strontium has a preventive or treatment effect in bladder with
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced experimental interstitial cystitis model.
Study design, materials and methods
Five different procedures administered to 8 rats in each group are as follows : Rats’ bladder in control group were instilled with
%0.9 NaCl after urethral catheterization, the second group was LPS group in which bladders were instilled with E. coli LPS, the
third group was strontium group in which bladders instilled with %1 strontium chloride hexahydrate solution, the fourth group was
preventive group in which bladders initially instilled with %1 strontium chloride then E. coli LPS, the fifth group was treatment
group in which bladders instilled with LPS initially then %1 strontium chloride solution.
All rats’ urine samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the study. Histamine and TNF-α levels were measured
by ELISA from urine samples. Rats’ bladder were removed at the end of the study and examined histopathologically for
inflammation and mast cell count with hematoxylin eosin and toluidine blue staining.
Results were presented as the mean ± standard deviation (SD) and various comparisons of mean difference among groups were
evaluated with Tukey test. Significance was considered at p<0,05.
In the LPS group; mean±SD of total urine histamine level increased from 9,85±3,58 ng to 34,14±3,02 ng and the TNF-α level
increased from 69,54±8,96 pg/mL to 119,18±13,48 pg/mL after LPS instillation. The changes in histamine and TNF-α value of
LPS group were statistically significant. (p=0,000 both).
(at the beginning)
(at the end)
LPS group histamine 9,85±3,58 ng 34,14±3,02 ng 0,000
LPS group TNF-α 69,54±8,96 pg/mL 119,18±13,48 pg/mL 0,000
In the strontium group; mean±SD of total urine histamine level changed from 9,76±3,61 ng to 11,33±2,57 ng and the TNF-α level
changed from 4,3±2,09 pg/mL to 27,8±14,07 pg/mL after strontium instillation. The changes in histamine and TNF-α value of
strontium group were not statistically significant. (p= 0.995, p=0,102).
(at the beginning)
(at the end)
Strontium group histamine 9,76±3,61 ng 11,33±2,57 ng 0.995
Strontium group TNF-α 4,3±2,09 pg/mL 27,8±14,07 pg/mL 0,102
In the preventive group; mean±SD of total urine histamine level was 31,88±2,58 ng at the end of the study. In the treatment group;
mean±SD of total urine histamine level was 37,28±4,16 ng at the end of the study. When these values were compared to LPS
group’s (34,14±3,02 ng) the differences were not statistically significant. (p= 0.942, p=0,702).
end of study histamine
Preventive group end of study histamine p
31,88±2,58 ng 0.942
Treatment group end of study histamine p
37,28±4,16 ng 0,702
In the preventive group; mean±SD of total urine TNF-α level was 27,95±15,14 pg/mL at the end of the study. In the treatment
group; mean ± SD of total urine TNF-α level was 24,98±14,63 pg/mL at the end of the study. When these values were compared
to LPS group’s (119,18±13,48 pg/mL) the differences were not statistically significant. (p=0,000 both).
end of study TNF-α
Preventive group end of study TNF-α p
27,95±15,14 pg/mL 0.000
Treatment group end of study TNF-α p
24,98±14,63 pg/mL 0.000
Regarding histopathological evaluation there was no significant difference between all groups.
Interpretation of results
The significant changes of urine TNF-α and histamine levels in LPS group showed that the validity of our interstitial cystitis model.
Strontium chloride alone did not make histopathological changes or did not make significant changes in TNF-α or histamine levels
In our interstitial cystitis model created with lipopolysaccharide, strontium chloride did not make any significant changes in
histopathology of the bladders and the levels of histamine; however, it significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α. Given that the
role of TNF-α in the physiopathology of interstitial cystitis, these results suggested that further studies are still required to evaluate
the potential use of strontium in the management of interstitial cystitis.
Funding: Cumhuriyet University conducted the study in accordance with the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals.
Clinical Trial: No Subjects: ANIMAL Species: Rat Ethics Committee: Animal ethics committee of Cumhuriyet University
J Orthop Res. 2009 Jun;27(6):758-62. doi: 10.1002/jor.20818.
Strontium-calcium coadministration stimulates bone matrix osteogenic factor expression and new bone formation in a large animal model.
Li Z1, Lu WW, Chiu PK, Lam RW, Xu B, Cheung KM, Leong JC, Luk KD.
Strontium (Sr) has become increasingly attractive for use in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis by concomitantly inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Strontium shares similar chemical, physical, and biological characteristics with calcium (Ca), which has been widely used as a dietary supplement in osteoporosis. However, the effects of Sr-Ca coadministration on bone growth and remodeling are yet to be extensively reported. In this study, 18 ovariectomized goats were divided into four groups: three groups of five goats each treated with 100 mg/kg/day Ca, Ca plus 24 mg/kg/day Sr (Ca + 24Sr), or Ca plus 40 mg/kg/day Sr (Ca + 40Sr), and three untreated goats fed low calcium feed. Serum Sr levels increased 6- and 10-fold in the Ca + 24Sr and Ca + 40Sr groups, respectively. Similarly, Sr in the bone increased four- and sixfold in these two groups. Sr-Ca coadministration considerably increased bone mineral apposition rate (MAR). The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and runt-related transcript
ion factor 2 (Runx2) was significantly upregulated within the Ca + 40Sr treatment group; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-agr; expression was significantly downregulated in the Ca and Ca + 40Sr groups.
The results indicate that Sr-Ca coadministration increases osteogenic gene expression and stimulates new bone formation.
Post Edited (fightUC) : 6/4/2015 11:38:58 PM (GMT-6)