Posted 2/8/2021 4:28 PM (GMT -6)
From Mayo Clinic:
Doctors often suspect C. difficile in anyone who has diarrhea and who has other risk factors for C. difficile. In such cases, doctors are likely to order one or more of the following tests.
Toxins produced by C. difficile bacteria can usually be detected in a sample of your stool. Several main types of lab tests exist, and they include:
Polymerase chain reaction. This sensitive molecular test can rapidly detect the C. difficile toxin B gene in a stool sample and is highly accurate.
GDH/EIA. Some hospitals use a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) test in conjunction with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test. GDH is a very sensitive assay and can accurately rule out the presence of C. difficile in stool samples.
Enzyme immunoassay. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is faster than other tests but isn't sensitive enough to detect many infections and has a higher rate of falsely normal results. This is typically not the only test used.
Cell cytotoxicity assay. A cytotoxicity test looks for the effects of the C. difficile toxin on human cells grown in a culture. This type of test is sensitive, but it is less widely available, is more cumbersome to do and requires 24 to 48 hours for test results. It's typically used in research settings.
Testing for C. difficile is unnecessary if you're not having diarrhea or watery stools, and isn't helpful for follow-up treatment. If you aren't having diarrhea, stool shouldn't be tested for C. difficile.
In rare instances, to help confirm a diagnosis of C. difficile infection and look for alternative causes of your symptoms, your doctor may examine the inside of your colon. This test (flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy) involves inserting a flexible tube with a small camera on one end into your colon to look for areas of inflammation and pseudomembranes.
If your doctor is concerned about possible complications of C. difficile, he or she may order an abdominal X-ray or a computerized tomography (CT) scan, which provides images of your colon. The scan can detect the presence of complications such as thickening of the colon wall, expansion of the bowel or, more rarely, a hole (perforation) in the lining of your colon.